独家安迪·叶特里亚尼,暴力侵害妇女行为报告率上升的困境
Andy Yentriyani. (Photo: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)

There are crucial issues that need to be observed recently. Namely, progress in dealing with cases of violence against women, which continues to increase from year to year. According to Andy Yentriyani, Chair of the National Commission on the Elimination of Violence against Women (Komnas Perempuan), on the one hand this could be a positive signal and women get a lot of support to report what they are experiencing. And it also means that there is increased confidence in government administrators and law enforcement officers that if they report their cases, they will be taken seriously. But on the other hand, in general, cases of sexual violence against women remain like the tip of the iceberg.

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Cases of violence against women are still the main topic of news in print and electronic media. In addition to the increasing number of cases, the types of violence that occur are also increasingly diverse. In the past, there was no known violence in the cyber world, now it has happened and is often carried out in various regions. This issue is the concern of Komnas Perempuan, as an institution concerned with the protection and assistance of women who are victims of violence.

“In addition to increasing cases, the forms of violence against women are also increasingly complex. If I compare it in 20 years, there are many new forms and new types of violence that have emerged, for example, 20 years ago we did not recognize sexual violence committed in cyberspace," said Andy, who has attended Human Rights training, such as Minority Rights, Women's Rights, ICCPR, CAT (OHCHR).

The sad thing is that for women victims of sexual violence, they are often reported back by the perpetrators. The basis is the ITE Law and the Pornography Law. "With the regulation of the ITE Law and the Pornography Law, which also creates new complications because women who are actually victims of sexual exploitation can actually be punished," said Andy Yentriyani.

Meanwhile, the Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology Regulation (Permendikbud Ristek) Number 30 of 2021 concerning the Prevention and Handling of Sexual Violence (PPKS) in Higher Education, according to Andy, must be addressed wisely. In her observations, there are many regulatory breakthroughs in this Permendikbut Ristek. “In Permendikbud Ristek No. 30, there are many breakthroughs in creating a conducive environment for sexual violence. This regulation is compared to similar regulations that regulate a safe educational environment free from violence, especially sexual violence. So we support the implementation of this Permedikbud first, if something is missing, let's correct it together," she told Iqbal Irsyad, Edy Suherli, Savic Rabos, and Irfan Meidianto from VOI, who met her in Margonda, Depok, West Java recently. Here's the full interview.

Andy Yentriyani. (Foto: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)
Andy Yentriyani. (Photo: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)

 

What are the crucial issues faced by Indonesian women today?

If we look at it in general, at the global level Indonesia is not a country at the bottom of the issue of gender equality, especially those that affect women's lives. There are still many countries that are far more extreme in their efforts to place women as more subordinate citizens. We can see from the progress that our education rates for women have continued to increase, even though the average length of schooling in Indonesia is still low, which is less than 12 years, and the number of years of schooling for women is lower than for men until now. So there is still room for improvement that needs to be done.

However, one of the crucial issues that we must also address immediately is how we respond to cases of violence against women which reports are increasing from year to year. On the one hand, women can be a positive signal, meaning that more women know that what they are experiencing is an act that is actually not true and then they also get a lot of support to be able to get the courage to report. And it also means that there is increased confidence in government administrators and law enforcement officers that if they report their cases, they will be taken seriously. On the other hand, the number of reports of violence against women is like the tip of the iceberg, because more women do not report.

In addition to increasing cases, the forms of violence and women are also increasingly complex. If I compare it in those 20 years, many new forms and new types of violence have emerged, for example, 20 years ago we did not recognize sexual violence committed in cyberspace. The regulation of the ITE Law and the pornography law also creates new complications because women who are actually victims of sexual exploitation can actually be punished by the ITE law and the pornography law. So the cases are much more complex, but there are also many cases where it becomes complex because it takes too long to solve them.

Andy Yentriyani. (Foto: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)
Andy Yentriyani. (Photo: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)

 

How big is the increase in cases of sexual violence against women?

The number of sexual violence continues to increase, Komnas Perempuan data shows that compared to 2019 the data in 2020 was up 18 percent and currently we do not have comprehensive legal protection for that. If we remember the tragedy of 98, one of the main recommendations for us issued by the joint fact-finding team made by the government which involved many elements as well as by the United Nations, which came to Indonesia, they said that if you want to raise this case, it is necessary to reform the criminal law, especially on the issue of rape. Our revised Criminal Code Bill has not changed until now. We hope that we can provide legal breakthroughs so that these cases can go forward. So there are many complications, for example, especially friends who are raped in their homes by their closest people; incest for example. The victim only dared to report when she was an adult.

We also find specific violence directed at women, recently we were surprised again by cases such as the pouring of acid on women. From the class data observed by Komnas Perempuan, we see that this is also a very specific form for women. The pattern is very specific. So usually it will be done by the first husband or ex-husband, boyfriend or ex-girlfriend out of jealousy. The second was refused to refer. So there is a very specific reason. And the acid is always directed to the face and to the breasts. So what is about to be destroyed is this woman's life.

So what exactly is meant by violence against women?

What is meant by violence against women is an act that stops or is intended to cause physical, psychological, or sexual suffering that is directed at women because she is a woman or because of the construction in society which is a woman. It can't be separated from, for example, her marriage, age, or another socioeconomic status of the woman. Examples are widows or female heads of households or single parents. In this context, when she wears lipstick, people are already excited. Who else's husband is she going to tease? So the minor view is like that. When she was sexually assaulted her position became weak because of her earlier status. This is very discriminatory.

What can be done about this reality?

Most importantly we have to build our knowledge about; why one group in society is more vulnerable to this act of violence. The construction in our society allows one party to be more weakened than the other and it is not the only reason. Furthermore, building legal awareness if it is necessary to report before making evidence of existing violence. So don't take a shower first or make marks of violence. In addition, it is necessary to seek help from certain institutions that are concerned with assisting victims. We have taken action on rape cases from 2016 to 2019, the initial report that was successfully processed by the police was only about 30 percent. Many of these reports were lost on the road due to loss of evidence or victims were tired, did not have the energy to face questions back and forth from investigators and some were intimidated by the perpetrators.

Regarding Permendikbud Ristek No. 30, how does Komnas Perempuan respond to the pros and cons of this matter?

Cases of sexual violence can occur anywhere, as long as women become sexual objects and as long as women are still subordinates, they will be in the most vulnerable position to become victims of sexual harassment, this does not mean that men will not become victims. There are also many men who are victims, but the gender construction prevents them from speaking up. Many cases of sexual violence in the education room are reported to Komnas Perempuan. Of the cases that came in, about 27 percent of them were cases of violence occurring in universities. Some are from lecturers to students, employees to students, or students to students.

In Permendikbud Ristek No. 30, there are many breakthroughs in creating a conducive environment for sexual violence. There are many important breakthroughs in this Permendikbud. This regulation is compared to similar regulations that regulate a safe educational environment free from violence, especially sexual violence. There are many good breakthroughs in this Permendikbud. I am very worried about some of those who understand this rule. Oh, this is something that can't be done without consent, meaning if it's done with consent, is it okay? I think this is too simplistic in understanding a rule.

Our job is to ensure that the university environment is a conducive place to gain knowledge. Fellow students who experienced sexual violence could destroy their future. This must be helped in order to get out of the problem. So, we will support the implementation of this Permedikbud first. If something is missing, let's correct it together.

What is also crucial is the act of sexual harassment by religious leaders, even though they should be the protectors in this context, is there a report on this matter at Komnas Perempuan?

There are many reports that come to Komnas Perempuan, these are from all religions, not to one particular religion. The number of victims when they entered Komnas Perempuan was not just one, many. But only one or two have advanced to the legal process. Actually, things like this also happen to community leaders, political elites and so on. And if a case like this is reported, it could lead to a report from the reported party. Because of the power they have, finally, the female victim is again in a weak position. Reported on defamation.

 

 

Andy Yentriyani's tactics to face the pandemic, just enjoy it

Andy Yentriyani. (Foto: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)
Andy Yentriyani. (Photo: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)

 

At the beginning of the pandemic, Andy Yentriyani sought a lot of information about the pandemic. The impact of the pandemic is also interesting not only from a health perspective but also from a socio-cultural perspective. “Face-to-face contact is indeed limited, but it can be replaced by making phone calls or video calls. This will keep us from being socially isolated. Because we can still connect with family, friends and relations,” said the woman who was born on January 24, 1977.

In addition, during this pandemic, she is pampering herself by doing her hobby. Love to eat well. “Fortunately, my hobby is simple, my hobby is eating well. So I'm pretty easy to find happiness. Just eating well makes me happy,” said this woman from Pontianak, West Kalimantan.

Are there any restricted foods? “I cut down on processed foods quickly; fast food. And foods that use too much flavoring. This must be reduced,” continued the alumni of International Relations, University of Indonesia (2000) who continued to the MA Media & Communication program, Goldsmith College, University of London (2004).

Andy admits that some of her colleagues are really extreme in eating, it must be healthy food, it must be sourced from organic materials and the like. "Frankly, I'm not that extreme when it comes to eating. Eat healthy, yes, but sometimes I also occasionally eat fast food when I want to. So there are days when I am free to eat my favorite foods; Yes, it's a kind of cheating day," she explained.

What is clear is that before consuming a food, Andy must know exactly where the food she consumes comes from, uses what ingredients, is managed in what way, and the use of flavoring is reduced to the maximum. “I try to eat foods that are not genetically engineered. Because it will affect metabolism, body hormones, and others,” she explained.

 

Jakarta alley

Andy Yentriyani. (Foto: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)
Andy Yentriyani. (Photo: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)

 

Another thing that Andy doesn't forget to do is exercise. “I used to do aikido. However, because there are problems with the bones of the hands because aikido is rather a high impact, it is finally recommended to stop such sports. Then I walked through the alleys of Jakarta," she said.

According to Andy, in the midst of the glittering city of Jakarta with skyscrapers, it turns out that there is an anomaly. Only a few meters from the splendor of the city there is already a simple settlement that is in stark contrast to the splendor of the city. For Andy to walk through the recesses of the city of Jakarta, which is so contrasting, is an interesting adventure. "So while exercising, we can see the unique and anomalous state of the city," she said.

Although she does not dare to admit that he is proficient in singing, Andy is always accompanied by music when she works. “When I write, it's easier to finish with music. I'm not sure I can sing well. I'm just a music lover," she said.

Andy is indeed different from most girls who usually like to sew or embroider. She even has a hobby of carpentry. One of her obsessions is making transforming household appliances. “My goal is to make a table that can change shape or transform into another shape. But it hasn't been accomplished yet because working at Komnas Perempuan takes a long time,” she said. With this hobby of carpentry, she is not at all worried if there are things that need to be fixed in her house.

In this pandemic period where meetings are held virtually. She can spend from morning to night doing webinars. “I can be in front of the computer for webinars from 08.00 to 22.00. On the sidelines, there is also time to eat, drink and do other activities," said this outstanding graduate of PPSA XXI Lemhannas (2017).

In today's era according to Andy, vigilance must be applied to all children-both boys and girls. The problem is that crime is not only targeting girls at this time, boys are also not spared from threats.

 

From Pontianak

Andy Yentriyani. (Foto: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)
Andy Yentriyani. (Photo: Savic Rabos, DI: Raga/VOI)

 

Andy's struggle to help women who are oppressed has started from her hometown; Pontianak. She is concerned about the fate of women in her area who are powerless to marry men from Taiwan. After arriving in Taiwan, it turned out that the man was already married. And many other women's issues that occurred in West Kalimantan had become her attention before her work was expanded at the national and international levels.

She is involved in the Suar Asa Khatulistiwa Foundation (SAKA), West Kalimantan (2016-2019). At this foundation, she was the chairman. Then she became the Coordinator of the Bestari Rukun Association (2018-2019). Like a pond, West Kalimantan is too small for Andy. She expanded her work at the national level by becoming a member of the Ethics Council of the Service Provider Forum for Women Victims of Violence – FPL (2018-2019) and becoming the Chair of Komnas Perempuan. As for the international level, she has been the Coordinator of the Asia Pacific Women's Alliance for Peace and Security (APWAPS, 24 Countries, since 2017).

Andy's struggle, both personally and through the various organizations that she is involved in helping women fight for their rights, to get out of the shackles of violence is a long journey. A struggle that requires energy and attention.

Now, said Andy, it is not only girls who have to take care of it, but also boys. The difference is that boys have the potential to become victims and perpetrators. "If you have ordered a lot of girls, be careful when you walk, don't want to be reprimanded by strangers, be careful when you meet strangers. And the message is don't be quick to trust men. In today's era, the same message must be conveyed to boys. Men can be potential victims, but also potential perpetrators of sexual crimes. So let's work together to prevent and deal with the violence around us," said Andy Yentriyani.

 

“In addition to increasing cases, the forms of violence and women are also increasingly complex. If I compare it in those 20 years, many new forms and new types of violence have emerged, for example 20 years ago we did not recognize sexual violence committed in cyberspace. With the regulation of the ITE law and the pornography law, it also creates new complications because women who are actually victims of sexual exploitation can actually be punished by the ITE law and pornography law,"

 

Andy Yentriyani

 


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